Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime

Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime


If you saw a wormhole in reality, it would appear round, spherical, a bit like a black hole. Light from the other side passes through and gives you a window to a faraway place. Once crossed, the other side comes fully into view with your old home now receding into that shimmering spherical window. But are wormholes real, or are they just magic disguised as physics and maths? If they are real, how do they work and where can we find them? [Kurzgesagt Intro] For most of human history, we thought space was pretty simple; a big flat stage where the events of the universe unfold. Even if you take down the set of planets and stars, there’s still something left. That empty stage is space and it exists, unchanging and eternal. Einstein’s theory of relativity changed that. It says that space and time make up that stage together, and they aren’t the same everywhere. The things on the stage can affect the stage itself, stretching and warping it. If the old stage was like unmoving hardwood, Einstein’s stage is more like a waterbed. This kind of elastic space can be bent and maybe even torn and patched together, which could make wormholes possible. Let’s see what that would look like in 2D. Our universe is like a big flat sheet, bent in just the right way, wormholes could connect two very, very distant spots with a short bridge that you could cross almost instantaneously. Enabling you to travel the universe even faster than the speed of light. So, where can we find a wormhole? Presently, only on paper. General relativity says they might be possible, but that doesn’t mean they have to exist. General relativity is a mathematical theory. It’s a set of equations that have many possible answers, but not all maths describes reality. But they are theoretically possible and there are different kinds. EINSTEIN ROSEN BRIDGES The first kind of wormholes to be theorized were Einstein Rosen Bridges. They describe every black hole as a sort of portal to an infinite parallel universe. Let’s try to picture them in 2D again. Empty space time is flat, but curved by objects on it. If we compress that object, space-time gets more curved around it. Eventually, space-time becomes so warped that it has no choice but to collapse into a black hole. A one-way barrier forms: the event horizon, which anything can enter but nothing can escape; trapped forever at the singularity at its core. But maybe there is no singularity here. One possibility is that the other side of the event horizon looks a bit like our universe again but mirrored upside down, where time runs backwards. In our universe things fall into the black hole. In the parallel universe, with backwards time, the mirror black hole is spewing things out a bit like a big bang. This is called a white hole. Unfortunately, Einstein-rosen bridges can’t actually be crossed. It takes an infinite amount of time to cross over to the opposite universe and they crimp shut in the middle. If you go into a black hole, you won’t become the stuff coming out of the white hole. You’ll only become dead. So, to travel the cosmos in the blink of an eye, humans need a different kind of wormhole; a Traversable Wormhole. VERY OLD STRING THEORY WORMHOLES If string theory or one of its variations is the correct description of our universe, then we could be lucky and our universe might even have a tangled web of countless wormholes already. Shortly after the Big Bang, Quantum fluctuations in the universe at the smallest scales far far smaller than an atom may have created many, many traversable wormholes. Threaded through them are strings, called cosmic strings. In the first billionth of a trillionth of a second after the Big Bang, the ends of these tiny, tiny wormholes were pulled light-years apart; scattering them through the universe. If wormholes were made in the early universe, whether with cosmic strings or some other way, they could be all over; just waiting to be discovered. One might even be closer than we realize. From the outside, black holes and wormholes can look very similar; leading some physicists to suggest the supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies are actually wormholes. It will be very hard to go all the way to the center of the Milky Way to find out though, but that’s okay. There might be an equally extremely hard way to get our hands on a wormhole, we could try to make one. MANMADE WORMHOLES To be traversable and useful, there are a few properties we want a wormhole to have. First, it must obviously connect to distant parts of space-time. Like your bedroom and the bathroom, or Earth and Jupiter. Second, it should not contain any event horizons, which would block two-way travel. Third, it should be sufficiently sized so that the gravitational forces don’t kill human travelers. The biggest problem we have to solve, is keeping our wormholes open. No matter how we make wormholes, gravity tries to close them. Gravity wants to pinch it closed and cut the bridge; leaving only black holes at the ends. Whether it’s a traversable wormhole with both ends in ours, or a wormhole to another universe, it will try to close unless we have something propping it open. For very old string theory wormholes, that’s the cosmic strings job. For man-made wormholes, We need a new ingredient. Exotic matter. This isn’t anything like we find on earth, or even antimatter. It’s something totally new and different and exciting, with crazy properties like nothing that’s ever been seen before. Exotic matter is stuff that has a negative mass. Positive mass like people and planets and everything else in the universe, is attractive because of gravity. But negative mass would be repulsive; it would push you away. This makes a kind of anti-gravity the props open our wormholes. And exotic matter must exert enormous pressure to push space-time open, greater even than the pressure of the centers of neutron stars. With exotic matter, we could weave space-time however we see fit. We may even have a candidate for this exotic matter, the vacuum of space itself. Quantum fluctuations in empty space are constantly creating pairs of particles and antiparticles, only for them to be annihilated an instant later. The vacuum of space is boiling with them, and we can already manipulate them to produce an effect similar to the negative mass we’re looking for. We could use this to stabilize our wormholes. Once we’re keeping it open, the ends would start together. So, we’d have to move them around to interesting places. We could start by wiring the solar system; leaving one end of each wormhole in orbit around the earth. We could flick others into deep space. The earth could be a wormhole hub for a vast interstellar human civilization spread over light-years, but only a wormhole away. However, wormholes have a dark side. Even opening a single wormhole, kind-of breaks the universe in fundamental ways, potentially creating time travel paradoxes, and violating the causal structure of the universe. Many scientists think that this not only means they should be impossible to make, but that it’s impossible for them to exist at all. So, for now, we only know that wormholes exist in our hearts, and on paper in the form of equations. We know you want to know more about universe stuff, so, we’re trying something new. Kurzgesagt and Brilliant are collaborating on a six-part video series about our favorite science and space things. Thanks to their help, there will be more videos on this channel in the next six months. Kurzgesagt has worked with Brilliant for a while now, and we love what they’re doing. In a nutshell, Brilliant helps you to get ahead by mastering maths and science skills through actively solving challenging and fascinating problems. To support our collaboration with them, visit brilliant.org/nutshell and sign up for free today. The first 688 people that use the link will get 20% off their annual premium subscription. –FINAL SUBTITLE EDIT/READ BY: WinterPyro

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  1. Does this mean theoretically that the instant a black hole forms for that billionth of trillionth of second there could possible be a wormhole; however the wormhole is “pinched shut” by the forces of gravity?

  2. I wish I will find answers when I die and travel the universe with my other form, hopefully I won't reborn as an evil goose.

  3. Question. If our atmosphere protects us from UV Ray's in the Light from the sun. Couldn't it be possible that light shining through a worm hole affect us differently maybe be dangerous to us. ? . . Sorry ..stupid hasty question. 🤔😫

  4. Thank you for these videos. They capture the attention of the audience, have humor embedded within them, and are educational. Just what I need.

  5. Remembered that if warmholes can exist, you’ll still die if you go through it, because you’re going through a place where time is jumping haywirely. You’ll just age super quick and die.

  6. Since UFOs are real (considering so many sightings around the world) we can assume that they have mastered the art of time travel and exploiting wormhole. We human species yet to understand this …!

  7. Quran, Chapter 27, Verses 38 – 40

    [Solomon] said, "O assembly, which of you will bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?"

    A powerful one from among the jinn said, "I will bring it to you before you rise from your place, and indeed, I am for this [task] strong and trustworthy."

    Said one who had knowledge from the book, "I will bring it to you before your glance returns to you." And when [Solomon] saw it placed before him, he said, "This is from the favor of my Lord to test me whether I will be grateful or ungrateful. And whoever is grateful – his gratitude is only for [the benefit of] himself. And whoever is ungrateful – then indeed, my Lord is Free of need and Generous."

  8. But wouldn't the exotic matter push you away from the wormhole as well? If it can fight back against gravity trying to close something which should be a black hole, one of the things with the strongest gravity we know of in the universe, it can definitely keep us out

  9. Can we not fling wormholes into deep space please. That's how cosmic horror stories begin. Thank you.

  10. The game Prey actually reminds me of this since the exotic matter comes from these aliens made of the stuff and they make this stuff called coral that I am pretty sure teleports the aliens’ god! They have a ton of abilities in the game, even mimicking objects, but they can teleport as if their own matter is creating a mini wormhole.

  11. Has anyone actually been INSIDE, or NEAR a black hole? Science is all about TESTING THE THEORIES, and guessing.
    ()_()

  12. Did anyone noticed the police box in every single video by now? (In this video it is at 7:24)

  13. my boring teacher: not everything you need you must like now study and zip it
    ME: watching kurzgesagt and what if (enjoying it)
    my boring teacher: wait that's illegal

  14. What if we forced exotic matter into a black hole to force it to open up into its counterpart white hole? This would allow us to traverse dimensions but not allow anyone or anything harmful to follow us behind as once exit, it detaches from the white hole? Imagine all the reverse matter in the white hole dimension.

  15. Imagine earth being sucked in a wormhole that goes backin the time so the planet now is in the past at the time when there was no life si thats why we feel lonely

  16. 'It should connect two very distant parts of the universe, like earth and jupiter'
    Maffei galaxy group: am I a joke to you?

  17. Wouldn't the exotic matter that holds open the worm hole force use away from the wormhole since it has negative matter and us having positive matter?

  18. What if a dying star is about to explode and failed to be a neutron star and the space couldnt even hold the force of it and leaves a big hole on the space creating black holes or wormholes that leads to other dimension or place.

  19. Blackhole has the extreme level of force of attraction/gravity towards itself. If a body dares to go near to blackhole, the blackhole pulls the body towards itself and stretches the body in extreme level and might cause death. By studying this, an astrologist created a word SPAGHETTIFICATION which has not been included in dictionary yet.

  20. Space is not an object and time is just a man made concept that is subjective in the human mind alone. Wake up.

  21. MUST READ!
    At 3:35 why you said we become dead?
    As you explained in your previous video that gravity pulls different parts of our body with enormously different force hence dividing our body to atomic level. But It may also possible that because time runs backward as you said at 3:06 we get recombined to the same configuration of our body and we become live again, only our left hand becomes right.
    Other problem is you said that it takes infinite time to cross it. I say yes it takes
    infinite time to cross the black hole BUT! with respect to the person way far then the black hole, for the person who is travelling will fill like time going at very high speed and finally he comes out the other side within a second or minute may be. I don't know if his brain will work properly after coming out at the side of white hole.

  22. MANMADE WORMHOLES : EXIST
    Feminists in 2020 : manmade wormholes are racist, it should be notmadebyman wormholes

  23. How do you pose to fold space back round on itself? Thats the first issue with this theory that makes it all fall apart. Wormholes are science fiction.

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